Energy saving technologies

Resource and energy saving technologies require a mandatory integrated approach to the production, distribution and consumption of electricity. And at the stage of building a house, modern energy-saving technologies are always combined with innovations in construction, as a significant part of electricity is used for heating the house in cold weather and for cooling in hot weather. This immediately requires the planned use of energy efficient materials. In addition, a personalized household supply system will allow, in some cases, to abandon the traditional method of electricity supply altogether.

Energy saving technologies in construction

The best example of energy-saving technologies in construction so far can be the so-called "energy efficient houses", in which ideally in winter a comfortable temperature is maintained without using a traditional heating system, and in summer without air conditioning.

Such constructions, depending on the technological variations, are also called Zero Energy House - "zero energy houses" or "passive houses".

In order to get as close as possible to the standards of such a house, it contains:

  • install an individual boiler room or other heat source, often connecting pumps that return the heat of the exhaust air from the ventilation duct, the heat of the ground or the waste water,
  • replace part of the solar electricity (collector), and direct solar energy in turn is used competently in accordance with the thermal balance of the building, connecting translucent and reflective structures,
  • they use modern thermal insulation materials and this applies to both building materials and communication systems.

The energy saving method described above assumes that the building becomes the final recipient of electricity from power plants. However, now the possibility of a complete transition to separate energy supply systems is seen as an innovative practice, when the building itself actually becomes a "power plant" and begins to distribute electricity to other consumers.

building a house with energy saving technologies

This is possible, for example, with the widespread use of nano-photovoltaic cells, which are called one of the most promising solutions. In Freiburg, Germany, the local solar institute uses the city space as a kind of "testing ground" for testing solar technology, introducing solar panels in the stadium, renovating entire neighborhoods (58 residential buildings and an office building on the district border) for the newThe concept of "active houses" The main obstacle to the widespread adoption of these technologies is the high cost of ultra-pure industrial silicone, which is used for batteries (about $ 450 / kg) . It has been replaced by nanotechnology and special carbon - fullerene. 2, 5 times lower than that of silicone solar cells.

Energy saving technologies in everyday life

The main direction in the creation of energy-saving technologies in everyday life is the individual regulation of energy consumption with the help of "smart" technologies, depending on:

  • personal habits of the inhabitants and preferences in the microclimate,
  • the time of year (day) when the "smart" system recovers, choosing to turn on and with what intensity to work.

For example, an automatic home lighting system turns on the light only when needed, turns it off during the day, and turns it on in the evening when it is activated by sound through the built-in microphone. When the noise appears within a radius of 5 meters, an energy-saving lamp is automatically lit, which does not go out while someone is in the room.

But until these "intellectual" innovations become dominant, experts recommend the use of "preventive energy saving" methods in everyday life, which include:

  • replacement of incandescent lamps with energy-saving ones (with consumption reduced by 5-6 times) or even more economical LEDs,
  • the transition to high-efficiency household appliances (A-A +++), which may show a difference of 50% compared to obsolete models,
  • switching off devices (equipment) in standby mode: TVs, music centers and cassette players that still consume 3-10 W in the off but not off state,
  • shutting down or putting the computer into sleep mode, which "eats" 70-120 kW / h per month during round-the-clock operation.

Special attention should be paid to the refrigerator, which is recommended:

  • do not place next to the stove (increases energy consumption by 25-30%),
  • do not fill with food not yet chilled,
  • prevents the formation of a gap in the seal,
  • do not cover the radiator and do not lean your "back" near the wall.

The introduction of energy-saving technologies in housing and communal services seems like a transition to drives with speed optimization functions depending on the actual load, which when working with elevators or ventilation units can save up to 50% of electricity.